The 4M rule for the perfect espresso

The 4M rule for the perfect espresso

Factors influencing how to prepare and serve an espresso coffee and a perfect Italian cappuccino are many but in particular can be summarized in the famous Italian rule of 4M.


1 M – Miscela: the blend

The coffee blend (Miscela) is the starting point for a quality espresso. In addition to the quality of the product it is necessary that the preservation took place in a cool environment, free of unpleasant odours and humidity.

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2 M – Macinacaffè: the coffee grinder

The coffee grinder (Macinacaffè) is a fundamental tool that grinds the coffee beans into powder and delivers the right dose for espresso extraction. Through the coffee grinder it is possible to adjust the degree of grinding of the coffee powder which is necessary to press inside the infusion filter. The correct grinding of the coffee must take place in 25-30 seconds

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3 M – Macchina: the coffee machine

The coffee machine is the tool that allows us to get the drink. The coffee machine through a pump mechanism coupled with a heat exchanger sends the boiling water to the dispensing unit which distributes it evenly over the coffee panel for infusion and subsequent dispensing. The two most important variables in the operation of an espresso machine are the water temperature, which must be fresh with a temperature of about 90°, and the pressure, which must reach 9 atmospheres

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4 M – Mano: the hand of barista

The dexterity of the operator is the factor that makes the difference. The skills of a bartender must concern the choice of the most suitable blend for the taste of its customers, the degree of grinding, the dosing of the filter, the pressing of the powder with a force of about 20 kg to make it compact at the right point, thre cleaning and maintenance of equipment.